Temperament is decided by putting curiosity, competitive spirit, wariness and attachment in order of strength.
The subject of this book is mainly how the three layer structure of temperament, personality and individuality work to decide a person's behavior. Temperament is inborn core traits of human beings, personality is acquired experiences added to temperament, and individuality is the whole existence including intellect and knowledge etc.
Temperament is the inborn and unchangeable parts of a person's behavior patterns.
Temperament can be understood by its connection to the seven basic emotions. Out of the seven basic emotions we can exclude repulsion, hope and surprise because repulsion is the opposite of interest, hope is intellect and surprise varies little between individuals. The order of strength of the remaining four emotions, fear, interest, love, and anger gives us the different temperaments.
Carry this further and interest become curiosity, anger becomes competitive spirit, fear becomes wariness and love becomes attachment. The order of strength of curiosity, competitive spirit, wariness and attachment gives us the temperaments.
This is not the mainstream personality classification. I am not saying that personality is divided into these four groups. Personality is decided by what kind of emotion occurs first when selecting an action.
When we choose an action we feel several emotions and we are attracted to several actions, but a person has only their own body, so only one action can be done. Therefore, we can predict a person's behavior based on which emotion usually wins.
A simple example; if you win a 1 million dollars in a lottery, what will you do?
If curiosity wins you may start a new hobby, and if competitive spirit wins you may invest to increase the money. If wariness wins you may save money in case you need it in the future, and if attachment wins you may use the money for your family. We can predict a person's actions in this way if we know their temperament.
This idea corresponds with the big five elements in personality psychology. Using statistics personality psychology found five elements of personality: openness to experience, conscientiousness, extraversion, agreeableness, and neuroticism.
This book interprets those five as follows: openness to experience corresponds to curiosity, conscientiousness corresponds to wariness, extraversion corresponds to competitive spirit, agreeableness corresponds to attachment, and neuroticism corresponds to the process for dealing with conflict.
The important point here is that neuroticism is clearly different from the other four categories. The other four categories are elements which give direction for the action, but neuroticism is an element which indicates the quantity of the actions.
This is supported by neuroscience, especially neurotransmitters. Attachment corresponds to sensitivity to oxytocin, curiosity corresponds to sensitivity to dopamine, wariness corresponds to sensitivity to serotonin or noradrenalin, competitive spirit corresponds to sensitivity to testosterone.